Here are ten outstanding Christmas-themed classical pieces, including both the well-known and the little-known.

1. G.F. Handel: Messiah 

Though especially popular at Christmas time, it is only “Part the First” of Handel’s Messiah that pertains to the season—the latter two sections address Christ’s passion and resurrection. There are some 100 versions of this magisterial work currently available, played by ensembles of various sizes and in different styles. There is even a version in German re-orchestrated by Mozart. To complicate matters further when it comes to choosing a recording, the score itself has had several incarnations; Handel adjusted the assignment of vocal parts for particular performances, taking into consideration the quality of the singers he had at hand.

2. P. I. Tchaikovsky: The Nutcracker
Is there a piece of music more closely associated with the season? More than that—despite its use to the point of kitsch in advertising— it deserves a place among the greatest works in the Western canon. Here is the overture to the ballet from this recording:

3. Hector Berlioz: L’Enfance du Christ

Little remembered today, save for “The Shepherds’ Farewell,” which pops up surprisingly often on classical Christmas CDs, Hector Berlioz’ complete oratorio is a work that deserves a better fate, as it is a true masterpiece. Berlioz called it a “sacred trilogy,” and its sections describe Herod’s slaughter of the innocents, the flight of the holy family into Egypt, and the safe arrival of Joseph, Mary, and Jesus in the town of Sais. L’Enfance du Christ is operatic in certain sections, quietly devotional in others, and unabashedly dramatic when necessary. Berlioz’ unique sound-world is unmistakable throughout. With this work the self-professed agnostic came closest to revealing that in truth the Hound of Heaven was never far behind him.

Here is the delightful “The Shepherds’ Farewell,” the only part of the work that will appear as a self-standing piece on Christmas albums:

4. Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov: Christmas Eve Suite

Another rarity—perhaps it is because the composer himself is seriously underrated, or because the opera from which the suite is drawn tells the decidedly not-so-heartwarming tale of the Devil’s attempt to steal souls and a priest’s effort to seduce a young Russian woman. Be that as it may, the Christmas Eve Suite, at some twenty-five minutes, is of a perfect length to be included in seasonal concerts, and the nasty details of its underlying story can be ignored as one revels in its wordless music. The suite’s magical opening, depicting the stars and comets against the dark, cold Russian sky, is unforgettable. The piece ends with rousing dances so characteristic of the composer.

5. William Henry Fry: Santa Claus: Christmas Symphony

American composer William Henry Fry wrote the highly enjoyable Santa Claus: Christmas Symphony in 1853, deeming it at the time “the longest instrumental composition ever written on a single subject, with unbroken continuity.” This claim, which is probably true, is quite surprising, as is the fact that the legend of Santa Claus was already ingrained in American culture eight years prior to the outbreak of the American Civil War. Fry counted composer Hector Berlioz among his important influences, and one can hear echoes of Berlioz’ grand orchestral effects in the piece, though Fry’s voice is his own. The Santa Claus Symphony is likely the first use of the recently-invented saxophone in an orchestral work. There are even a few good melodies here. Though termed a symphony, it is really a tone poem, depicting a series of scenes:

The trumpet announces the Saviour’s birth, and the celestial host takes up the chorus. The exultation is broken by loud discords as some of the angels fall away in anger, but harmonious triumph concludes the section. Now a Christmas Eve party. reunited family, dancing, and general frivolity are depicted in pell-mell joy An impending snowstorm arrives in the brass, but the dancing resumes, quieter this time as the party-goers leave for home. As sleep descends, Fry employs one of his favorite devices, the setting of text to instrumental declamation. We hear The Lord’s Prayer in syllabic cadence on the upper strings, followed by ‘Rock-a-by baby’ on the soprano saxophone. Muted strings even mimic the baby’s breathing. The snowstorm again comes into view, and in the middle of it is a traveller (the solo double bass). Lost and alone, his moans are heard through the wind as he perishes. But this depressing scene shifts as Santa Claus enters, with the voice of the high bassoon, here in his horse-drawn sleigh. Down the chimney he slides with flutes accompanying; plucked strings signify the clicking of toys being dropped into stockings. The children still sleep Santa leaves, the sound of hooves and bells receding into the distance. Up in the sky, extremely high violins portray a chorus of angels singing the familiar Adeste fideles. The sun rises on Christmas Day. The house awakens to the sounds of ‘Get up!’ on the horn and ‘Little Bo-peep’ on the trumpets as the children play The beginning of the work reappears, as does the Adeste fideles, as Santa Claus closes in a hymn of praise. —*From Kile Smith’s essay for the Naxos album

6. Victor Hely-Hutchinson: Carol Symphony

South African-born Victor Hely-Hutchinson based this four-movement work on themes from traditional carols: “O Come All Ye Faithful,” “God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen,” the “Coventry Carol,” “The First Nowell,” and “Here We Come A-Wassailing.” It’s a fun way to hear these tunes in orchestral guises and thus prevent tiring of them.

7. J.S. Bach: Christmas Oratorio

One of a trio of works for important Christian feast days that Bach composed late in life, the two-and-half-hour-long Christmas oratorio is actually a series of six cantatas intended for celebrations on various days through the twelve days of Christmas: the birth of Jesus, the annunciation to the shepherds, the adoration of the shepherds, the presentation of Jesus, the journey of the Magi, and the adoration of the Magi. The music draws on earlier, secular works by the composer.

8. Camille Saint-Saëns: Christmas Oratorio

Devotional rather than dramatic, Saint-Saëns’ short (thirty-five minutes or so) oratorio on the Christmas story is a work of great beauty if little variety. The trio for tenor, bass, and soprano is especially exquisite.

9. Ralph Vaughan Williams: Fantasia on Christmas Carols

Written for baritone, chorus, and orchestra, Vaughan Williams’ twelve-minute work incorporates several English folk carols.

10. Benjamin Britten: A Ceremony of Carols

Arranged for a boys’ choir, solo voices, and harp, this eleven-movement work takes its Middle-English text partly from The English Galaxy of Shorter Poems.

1. Procession (Einzug; an adaptation of Hodie Christus natus est)
2. Wolcum Yole! (Willkumm, Jul!): Welcome Yule
3. There is no Rose (Es ist kein Ros): There Is No Rose Of Such Virtue
4a. That Yongë Child (Wann bub dies Kindlein)
4b. Balulalow (Bubaideli)
5. As dew in Aprille (Wie Tau im Aprill)
6. This little Babe (Der kleine Knab)
7. Interlude (Zwischenspiel) [Omitted if performing the piano version]
8. In Freezing Winter Night (In kalter Wintersnacht)
9. Spring Carol (Frühlings-Chor)
10. Deo Gracias (Deo Gracias)
11. Recession (Abgang; also an adaptation of Hodie Christus natus est)

Here is a live performance of the full work, which employs a female choir in lieu of a boys’ choir:

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