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ten greatest violin concertosThe violin concerto as a form of music has endured for some 300 years and remains, alongside the piano concerto, the most popular type of concerto played in modern concert halls and committed to recording. The genre was first developed during the Baroque era, when the concerto was conceived as a tripartite structure, running about fifteen minutes in length. Two of the masters of that era—Johann Sebastian Bach and Antonio Vivaldi—gave us supreme examples of this form; the former’s solo concertos, BWV 1041 and 1042, and double concerto, BWV 1043, boast more than 150 available recordings each, and the latter’s Four Seasons, a series of four concertos, ranks as one of the most popular classical pieces of all time. The masters of the classical period, Franz Josef Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, also composed in the form, the genre remaining throughout the Classical Period a pleasing diversion for concertgoers and party-goers, with concertos running about twenty to twenty-five minutes in length and being somewhat lighthearted in character.

It was Beethoven who transformed the violin concerto in the first years of the nineteenth century—as he did the symphony—into a grand orchestral work, a profound and elongated statement that plumbed emotional depths left untouched by his predecessors. Such is the monumental nature of Beethoven’s work that it stands alone in this genre among his oeuvre; he seemed to think that it could not be rivaled by another attempt.

Beethoven’s example was followed by the composers of the Romantic Period, who saw the violin concerto as conducive not only to pyrotechnic displays of skill by the soloist but also as ripe for the expression of personal testimonies of great emotion. The concerto now stretched to some forty minutes or more. The likes of Johannes Brahms, Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Felix Mendelssohn, Antonin Dvorak, and Jean Sibelius each completed one piece in the genre (an early, simple concerto for violin and strings by Mendelssohn excluded), and their compositions today are known simply as “The Brahms,” “The Tchaikovsky,” etc. The violin concerto continued to flourish into the twentieth century, with the Americans Erich Wolfgang Korngold and Samuel Barber providing two of its greatest post-Romantic incarnations, though returning its length to that of the Classical Period.

Though it has been three-quarters of a century since the last great violin concerto was composed, the genre will survive for time immemorial because of the great incarnations of the form listed below, which are listed in order of greatness from ten to one.

10. Samuel Barber: Violin Concerto, op. 14 (composed in 1939)

A melting main theme in the first movement, a pensive slow movement, and dancing pyrotechnics in the finale. The Pennsylvanian-born Barber follows the Romantic formula for the violin concerto and creates a work of remarkable loveliness.


9. Erich Wolfgang Korngold: Violin Concerto, Op. 35 (composed in 1945)

Score another one for the Americans! A Jewish refugee from Austria, Korngold made America his home and made his fame in Hollywood as a film composer, yet he also produced “serious” classical works in traditional forms. None of these is greater than his Violin Concerto, perhaps the most underrated example in this genre ever composed.


8.  Antonin Dvorak: Violin Concerto in A Minor, Op. 53  (composed in 1879)

Famed for his New World Symphony, Dvorak’s Violin Concerto is strangely neglected in the concert hall and on record. It launches boldly, reaches a meditative  middle, concludes with a dance-like finale, and is filled with first-rate melodies, as are all of this composer’s best works.


7. Max Bruch: Concerto No. 1 in G Minor, Op. 26 (composed in 1866)

Bruch officially wrote three violin concertos, but this one is clearly his greatest achievement in the genre. Opening mysteriously, the first movement alternates between song and storm; the concerto reaches its true climax in the heart-achingly beautiful middle movement, sometimes described as an aria for violin.


6. Felix Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E Minor, Op. 64 (composed in 1845)

One of the best-known violin concertos ever written, Mendelssohn unusually has the soloist enter almost immediately, as we are launched into an amazing first movement that combines pyrotechnics with deep pathos and mystery. There is a gorgeous slow movement and then a rip-roaring finale. Mendelssohn is often accused of being “light,” but his violin concerto possesses a depth and mystery that should make critics reevaluate their opinion of this composer.


5. Ludwig van Beethoven: Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 61 (composed in 1806)

From the opening timpani strokes of its brooding and titanic first movement, to its hushed and poignant slow movement, to its celebratory finale, Beethoven’s Violin Concerto is one of the composer’s greatest masterpieces. When playing this concerto, some soloists use cadenzas (the solo parts of a concerto traditionally improvised by the player) based on those that Beethoven himself wrote for the piano version of his piece. In the already-massive first movement, Beethoven’s long cadenza adds both a severity and jauntiness to the generally contemplative atmosphere. Readers/listeners may hear the three Beethoven cadenzas played in the video below.


4. Johannes Brahms: Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 77 (composed in 1878)

Much of Brahms’ work is derivative of his idol Beethoven—and that includes the Violin Concerto, perhaps Brahms’ greatest work. He clearly uses Beethoven as his model in terms of the character and length of the three movements, but here he may even outdo his idol, plumbing the depths of the soul in the lyrical first and second movements, and using a jaunty Hungarian folk tune as the basis of the rousing finale.


3. Camille Saint-Saëns: Violin Concerto No. 3 in B Minor, O. 61 (composed in 1880)

Camille Saint-Saëns has unfairly earned a reputation as a composer of merely pleasant, even if sometimes technically challenging, music (his famous “Carnival of the Animals” comes to mind). But Saint-Saëns composed many pieces of great profundity, including his Requiem and this, his last of three violin concertos. A searching first movement is followed by an absolutely exquisite and mysterious slow movement, and then a turbulent finale. In many ways this concerto seems to have inspired the Sibelius Violin Concerto below.

2. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky: Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 35 (composed in 1878)

The Tchaikovsky concerto divides critics, some of whom see it as clichéd and derivative. Others, like the present author, view it as a masterpiece, characteristic of the composer in its orchestral command and use of melody. Indeed, Tchaikovsky has no superior when it comes to melody, and he gives us one of his most beguiling in the first movement here.


1. Jean Sibelius: Violin Concerto in D Minor, Op. 47 (composed in 1904)

Jean Sibelius is perhaps the most underrated of the great composers. A Finn who was known for his musical conservatism in drawing on the central European tradition of Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven, his Violin Concerto is a towering masterpiece, its opening transporting us to an otherworldly realm of haunting memory and unnamed drama. The tension is sustained throughout the three joined movements of this astounding composition, where fire always lurks just beneath the icy, Nordic surface.

Note that the author has amended this list since it was first published. Books on the topic of this essay may be found in The Imaginative Conservative BookstoreThe Imaginative Conservative applies the principle of appreciation to the discussion of culture and politics—we approach dialogue with magnanimity rather than with mere civility. Will you help us remain a refreshing oasis in the increasingly contentious arena of modern discourse? Please consider donating now.

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30 replies to this post
  1. Seeing that this type of music apparently requires a pretty girl in an attractive dress, this looks like a show even a deaf person could enjoy!

  2. No Bach?, a distinct tilt to the Romantic, of course beautiful but perhaps neglectful of a magnificent period in the development of the concerto form. I had the pleasure of seeing the Barber piece performed at Tangelwood, Gil Shaham performing, outstanding. Now to enjoy some of these beauties, thank you Mr. Klugewicz.

    • Elgar’s opus 61 is, I think, one of the definitive works of art of the 20th century.

      In any event, this is a great article and it is awesome that the author gives us these articles each of which contain a mini-music appreciation lesson. I really look forward to them, and hope they keep coming!

  3. These are indeed the heavyweights, the very justification that there is a small army of full-time violin soloists who make their living from these works. I do think the Berg, a masterpiece, gets more playtime than the Korngold. Josh Bell has done Walton quite a bit as it is deserving. As to Bach, his concerto’s are indeed staples and ought to be included on a top list, even eclipsing the Korngold, who seems to be occupying the place in canonic purgatory that Rachmaninov lived in for so long.Now he’s in, Korngold’s fans are still trying to push him in.

  4. This is magnificent!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Thank you so much. I love music, do not play it well, but my heart sings when I hear these compositions. Happy New Year.

  5. I love the Beethoven Concerto! It would probably be my number 2 choice. My number one would be the Britten Violin Concerto. It’s probably the most underrated piece of music ever written (in my opinion). It moves me in a way that no piece does. My no. 3 would be Bach’s Violin Concerto in E Major.

  6. My TOP 5 list:
    1. Jean Sibelius: Violin Concerto in D Minor, Op. 47
    2. Jean Sibelius: Violin Concerto in D Minor, Op. 47
    3. Jean Sibelius: Violin Concerto in D Minor, Op. 47
    4. Max Bruch: Concerto No. 1 in G Minor, Op. 26
    5. Ludwig van Beethoven: Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 61

  7. it is exciting to see so many learned opinions here, and strongly-held opinions, as well! this keeps the music alive, and is very much part of the imaginative conservative project of continually infusing the tradition with life, and our lives with the tradition…

  8. Of course this is just the opinion of one man. Some very good choices though. Ask 10 people and you will get 10 different lists.

    I think the Four Seasons and at least one Bach concerto should have been on the list…but, again…it is only my opinion. Thanks for this article!

  9. A fine list, and indeed a welcome topic of discussion. Keeping the greatest music “alive” and active is one of the more important things one can and should do for culture. I of course agree with the above comment that each person will have his or her own list of the top ten.

    Mendelssohn’s is my personal favorite, the most perfect of all the Violin Concertos, followed by Tchaikovsky’s and Bruch’s. I have never been particularly impressed by the Beethoven, though this admittedly may be due to my expectations having been set very high before ever listening to it.

    Like several others, I would have liked to see a Bach included in the list. His double Concerto, while short, is an unquestioned masterpiece; a flawlessly woven, yet beautiful, tapestry of music.

  10. I cannot understand why the writer of this essay neglected Paganini’s outstanding Violin Concerto No. 1

  11. “Though it has been three-quarters of a century since the last great violin concerto was composed…” Really? What about Shostakovich’s two concertos (1947 and 1967) or Britten’s (1939)? And there are some very good ones by contemporary composers like John Adams, Jennifer Higdon, and Shulamit Ran.

    I must say, the list seems very heavily biased toward romantic works; no Bach and no Berg, Bartok, Szymanowski, Shostakovich, Prokofiev, Britten, or Stravinsky. Obviously you could not have fit in all of those but they are all superior to Bruch and Korngold (and arguably superior to Barber and Dvorak as well).

  12. I consider beethoven’s and brahms’s concerto to be extremely genius and highly sophisticated. Most 20th century concertos sounds like “they compose because they can”, and some parts are “lazy”. Difficult to hear any mozart because his clarinet concerto overshadows them.

  13. Prokofiev’s 1st would be on my list. No-one has mentioned the lovely multi-colored Khachaturian which is right up there too. But as others have said all will vary in their preferences. A top 20 might be better to do more justice to the selection.

    • That’s a good question, sir. Here is what I have found: “Vivaldi’s remains were placed in a simple grave in a cemetery for the poor outside Vienna, as all cemeteries inside the city wall had been closed on health grounds in 1530. Vivaldi’s remains were never retrieved or relocated. Vienna’s Technical University was built on the former site of the cemetery, where today a simple stone marks the spot.”

  14. Bob, I have to say, I always think Hilary Hahn’s interpretation is better. I hope someday to hear what she does with Tchaikovsky’s violin concerto, my favorite since the age of three, when I used to listen to Jascha Heifetz play it over and over, and it has never gotten old. I believe Hilary Hahn is the greatest violinist of our generation, and I agree with several of the selections noted above, regardless of the exact order.

  15. Stephen, thank you for your insights and creating this wonderful forum for discussion. It is hard to compare contributions from different times in a meaningful way and in what sense is great implied – how to weigh influence on the genre or on the listeners? Our ears are attuned for different levels of dissonance – what I deem great as a listener depends greatly on my mood and I tend towards the Sibelius, Bruch and Prokofiev concertos. Hilary Hahn is the best living exponent I have heard for these pieces. As so many have mentioned its a very personal choice. What I like to envision when listening is that the soloist represents the individual soul with its own separate story and struggle – sometimes in harmony with the rest of society / the world at large, sometimes not. On these terms Beethoven is then hard to beat as an exposition of the raw human spirit in music..

  16. “Dvorak’s Violin Concerto is strangely neglected in the concert hall and on record. It launches boldly, reaches a meditative middle, concludes with a dance-like finale, and is filled with first-rate melodies, as are all of this composer’s best works”

    I suspect one of the reasons Dvorak is neglected is that some of those first-rate melodies go to the the orchestra instead of the solo, or are shared by both. That is, the Dvorak is a very challenging solo violinist part, but also a complex, beautiful orchestral part that has to be heard. There’s no cadenza, and many of the most challenging ‘solo’ parts are more closely coupled with orchestral sections – unlike some of the ‘superstar’ romantic-era concertos that were really designed for the virtuosity of the soloist to be front and center. I wonder if some soloists see it as not worth the effort. Which is too bad, since it really is one of the best pieces out there.

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