The Battle of Jumonville Glen: The French & Indian War Begins

By |2020-05-27T10:08:43-05:00May 27th, 2020|Categories: George Washington, History, War|

While the Battle of Jumonville Glen may not be considered the start of the war from the British perspective, it resulted in an expanded colonial conflict engulfing the world in violence, which then began the rift between Britain and their colonists that set the stage for the American Revolution. In a wooded clearing overlooking [...]

The First and Second Banks of the United States

By |2020-05-19T14:21:25-05:00May 19th, 2020|Categories: Alexander Hamilton, American Founding, American Republic, Bradley J. Birzer, Economic History, Economics, History, Senior Contributors|

The First Bank of the United States influenced much more than mere economics. Many scholars indeed believe that divisions caused by the Bank led to the creation of the first real political divisions in the country. By the standards set by the Second Bank of the United States, the First Bank was tame. The [...]

The Monroe Doctrine

By |2020-05-18T15:15:33-05:00May 15th, 2020|Categories: American Founding, American Republic, Bradley J. Birzer, Europe, Foreign Affairs, History, John Quincy Adams, Senior Contributors|

In his ideas regarding American foreign policy, James Monroe echoed both Washington and Jefferson, yet he had to worry about things neither of them did—in particular, European involvement in the affairs of the republics of the Western Hemisphere. His policy needed to follow the diplomatic thought of the previous administrations while also adapting to [...]

The Enterprising Colony: The Settling of Jamestown

By |2020-05-14T16:40:43-05:00May 13th, 2020|Categories: American Founding, American Republic, Economics, Freedom, History, Jamestown|

In the early seventeenth century, gentlemen adventurers and common tradesmen voyaged to Jamestown and established the first permanent English settlement in North America. They were free and independent Englishmen who risked their lives and fortunes to brave the dangers of the New World for personal profit and the glory of England. […]

President James Monroe and Republican Virtue

By |2020-05-11T10:00:26-05:00May 11th, 2020|Categories: American Founding, American Republic, Bradley J. Birzer, Character, Government, History, Senior Contributors|

Whatever his failings as an imaginative thinker, President James Monroe’s own convictions were rooted deeply in the spirit and the letter of the U.S. Constitution. As he entered the White House in March 1817, he had little (well, less) use for James Madison’s newfound love of nationalism. While he entered the presidency too late [...]

A Republic If You Can Keep It: Religion, Civil Society, & America’s Founding

By |2020-05-09T10:32:18-05:00May 9th, 2020|Categories: American Founding, American Republic, Civil Society, Morality, Religion, Virtue|

Though civil libertarians rightly point out the dangers of an unchecked government, they blissfully ignore the dangers of an unchecked, unrestrained populace. It is thus worthwhile to return to the founders and examine what role they desired religion and morality to play in their new Republic. The story goes that as Benjamin Franklin departed [...]

Frederick Douglass, Progressive Visionary?

By |2020-05-01T09:41:05-05:00April 30th, 2020|Categories: American Founding, American Republic, History|

In “Frederick Douglass’s Vision for a Reborn America,” David W. Blight, one of the nation’s preeminent Frederick Douglass scholars, provides a faulty account of Douglass’ view of America and his understanding of the American Founding.[1] Throughout his account, Dr. Blight emphasizes the need to examine Douglass in light of modern racial strife. He begins [...]

Battles of Lexington & Concord: The American Revolution Begins

By |2020-04-19T08:30:36-05:00April 18th, 2020|Categories: American Founding, American Republic, American Revolution, History, War|

During the first six decades of the eighteenth century, the American colonies were mostly allowed to govern themselves. In exchange, they loyally fought for Great Britain in imperial wars against the French and Spanish. But in 1763, after the British and Americans won the French and Indian War, King George III began working to [...]

How Can We Form a More Perfect Union in Our Fractious Age?

By |2020-04-14T14:42:54-05:00April 12th, 2020|Categories: American Founding, American Republic, Gleaves Whitney, Government, History, Liberal, Politics, Republicans|

From the founding generation to the greatest generation, Americans sought meaning in one or more of the three operating systems that informed Western civilization: Judeo-Christianity, the Enlightenment, and Romanticism. The productive tension among those three operating systems defined the modern age. Three radically different world views—yet we moderns kept them suspended in a three-way polarity. [...]

John Marshall: A Primer

By |2020-03-30T10:14:33-05:00March 30th, 2020|Categories: American Founding, American Republic, Bradley J. Birzer, Constitution, History, John Marshall, Senior Contributors, Supreme Court|

Perhaps more than any other figure in the early history of the American Republic, John Marshall shaped the Supreme Court as well as attitudes toward and understandings of the U.S. Constitution. John Marshall (September 24, 1755–July 6, 1835) was the fourth man to serve as the Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, [...]

Did Edmund Burke Support the American Revolution?

By |2020-03-17T17:36:43-05:00March 17th, 2020|Categories: American Founding, American Republic, Bradley J. Birzer, Conservatism, Declaration of Independence, Edmund Burke, History, Independence Day, Robert Nisbet, Russell Kirk, Senior Contributors|

Many conservatives have assumed that Edmund Burke was opposed to the American Revolution. It is, to my mind, an erroneous assumption. “Burke broke his agentship and went publicly silent on the American cause once war broke out,” Robert Nisbet claimed in his most definitive analysis of Edmund Burke, written and published in 1985. His [...]

Recovering Our Legacy: The Many Uses of the American Past

By |2020-03-08T20:51:13-05:00March 8th, 2020|Categories: American Founding, Citizenship, Civilization, Conservatism, History, Western Civilization|

“Citizenship” means a vivid and enduring sense of one’s full membership in one of the greatest enterprises in human history: the astonishing, perilous, and immensely consequential story of one’s own country. Today, we must redouble our efforts to make that past our own, and then be about the business of passing it on. We [...]

A Founding of Words

By |2020-02-28T10:21:43-06:00February 24th, 2020|Categories: American Founding, American Republic, Bradley J. Birzer, History, John Adams, Literature, Senior Contributors|

In so many ways, the American founding era (1761-1793) is a time period without equal in all modern history, as a dedicated group of citizens attempted to create and sustain the first republic on any large scale since the collapse of the Roman Republic with the assassination of Senator Marcus T. Cicero (43B.C.). They [...]